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(原標題)軟實力超級大國

Global trends in cultural engagement and influence

(副標題)全球文化參與與文化影響力變化趨勢

Author: Alistair MacDonald

作者:阿利斯泰爾·麥克唐納

Russia
Russia has adopted a complex international strategy drawing on a range of hard and soft power tools to realise its foreign policy obxtives.

【俄羅斯篇】
俄羅斯已經采用了一種復雜的國際戰略,動用了一系列硬實力和軟實力工具以實現其外交政策目標。

It sees soft power as an integral part of its national power strategy and can be seen as having been largely successful in its short-term aims of increasing Russian influence internationally. Russia has been able to utilize its extensive soft power assets to forge deeper socio-cultural lixs with countries in its near-neighbourhood across the former Soviet unx. In addition, its intervention in the Syrian Civil War has been accompanied by diplomatic, economic and socio-cultural efforts across the Middle East resulting in significantly increased Russian influence in the region and the deepening of ties with powers like Iran, Saudi Arabia and Turkey.
Hosting expensive global spectacles like the World Cup and the Sochi Winter Olympics is another key element in Russia’s strategic approach to soft power – the government sees the expenditure as essential for the projection of a positive image of the country to international audiences. Nevertheless while Russia’s standing on the global stage is certainly greater than it was even five years ago, there has been a cost. The Russian approach to power projection has antagonised many Western countries leading to diplomatic tensions and the imposition of sanctions and other measures that have adversely impacted on the Russian economy.

該國把軟實力看成其強國戰略不可或缺的一部分,而且可以認為軟實力在達成其增強俄羅斯國際影響力的短期目標方面一直都在取得重大的成功。俄羅斯一直都能利用其豐厚的軟實力資產,與整個前蘇聯范圍內與其鄰近的國家深化它們之間的社會文化聯系。此外,該國對敘利亞內戰的干涉,一直伴隨著其在整個中東地區外交、經濟和社會文化方面付出的努力,結果就是俄羅斯對該地區的影響力顯著提升,也深化了與地區強國間的關系,比如伊朗、沙特阿拉伯和土耳其。主辦耗資巨大的全球盛事比如世界杯和索契冬奧會,是俄羅斯增進軟實力戰略手法中的又一大關鍵組成部分,在該國政府眼中,這方面的支出對于把該國的正面形象投射給國際觀眾是至關重要的。盡管如此,雖然俄羅斯在全球舞臺上的地位毫無疑問要比五年前要高,這也是有代價的。俄羅斯投射力量的手法已經引發了很多西方國家的反抗,導致了外交緊張,并被強加制裁,還有其他一些已經對俄羅斯經濟產生不利影響的措施。



(譯注:益普索(Ipsos)是由朱賢特先生(Didier Truchot)1975年在法國巴黎創立,是目前市場研究顧問行業中唯一一家獨立的由專業研究顧問人員管理的全球性的上市公司)

Apart from the extensive investment in online activity and international broadcasting, Russia is also following the more conventional approach to soft power by investing in international cultural and educational initiatives. Russia has several state organisations that operate in the soft power sphere. The Cold War era ballet diplomacy of foreign tours by the Bolshoi is matched today by courses in Russian language and literature, international celebrations of Pushkin, Malevich, cosmonauts and contemporary Russian film, and high-level strategic dialogues. Its cultural institutions have increased their global representation from 82 offices just five years ago to 171 today, showing the high priority the Russian government is placing on developing cultural influence and relationships overseas.

除了對在線活動和國際廣播進行大量投資外,俄羅斯也會按照更常規的方法來提高軟實力,方法是通過對國際文化和教育計劃進行投資。俄羅斯有若干個在軟實力領域運作的國有機構。冷戰時期波修瓦芭蕾舞團的外國巡回芭蕾外交,就相當于今天的俄羅斯語言文學課程、普希金/馬列維奇等人的國際慶典、宇航員和當代俄羅斯電影,以及高級別戰略對話。其文化機構已經增加了它們在全球的存在,從短短5年前的82間辦公室增至今天的171間,展現出俄羅斯政府把在海外發展文化影響力和文化關系擺在了相當優先的位置。

(譯注:波修瓦芭蕾舞團為全球頂尖的兩大蘇俄芭蕾舞團之一:基洛夫 ( KIROV )和 波修瓦(BOLSHOI);馬列維奇(Kazimir Severinovich Malevich,1878-1935),俄國畫家,至上主義藝術奠基人)

Founded in 2007 the Russkiy Mir Foundation has a rapidly expanding global network, including its newly opened centre in Tehran. Russkiy Mir offers Russian language courses – often through university departments – and an extensive programme of educational and cultural events including exhibitions and concerts. Established in 2008, Rossotrudnichestvo aims at the implementation of the state policy of international humanitarian co-operation and the international promotion of an ‘obxtive image’ of contemporary Russia. Rossotrudnichestvo is represented in 80 states of the world by 95 representative offices – 72 Russian centres of science and culture in 62 states plus 23 representatives of the Agency serving in Russian Embassies across 21 states. 22 The priority of Rossotrudnichestvo is co-operation with the state-members of the Commonwealth of Independent States – each state has a Russian science and culture centre. It also offers short-term study visits to the Russian Federation for young representatives of political, public, scientific and business fields of foreign states under its New Generation programme.

創立于2007年的“俄羅斯世界”基金會擁有一張快速擴張的全球網絡,包括它在德黑蘭新開的中心。俄羅斯世界提供俄語課程(通常是通過大學的科系),以及大量的教育和文化活動計劃,包括展覽會和音樂會。聯邦獨聯體事務、海外僑胞和國際人道主義合作部創建于2008年,旨在執行國際人道主義合作的國策,以及當代俄羅斯“客觀形象”的國際推廣。該部門在全世界80個國家擁有95間代表處,由分布于62個國家的72家俄羅斯科學和文化中心,外加在21國俄聯邦大使館中提供服務的23個代表機構組成。該部門的優先事項是與獨聯體成員國展開合作,其中的每個成員國都有一家俄羅斯科學和文化中心。它也在其“新世代計劃”中為政治、政府、科學和商業領域的外國年輕代表提供赴俄聯邦的短期考察訪問。



The Miracle on the Han River is a well-known story, the rapid reconstruction and development of the South Korean economy during the latter half of the 20th century took the state from a developing country to G20 stalwart. This is often overlooked in discussions about Korean soft power; the attractiveness of that dramatic economic progress to emerging economies is considerable. Other developing nations look to Korea as a trailblazer. Today it is exporting its model of community development, Saemaul Undong, to countries like Uganda looking to emulate Korea’s economic success. A major element in Korea’s success has come from its reputation for innovation and technology. Samsung, LG and the other chaebols at the forefront of the digital revolution not only dominate the South Korean economy but are celebrated global brands that enhance Korea’s international appeal.

“漢江奇跡”是一個廣為人知的故事,二十世紀下半頁韓國經濟的快速重建和急速發展把該國從一個發展中國家變成了G20中的骨干。在有關韓國軟實力的討論中,這一點常常被忽視;經濟急劇發展乃至成為了新興經濟體,這帶來的吸引力是很可觀的。其他發展中國家則將韓國視為先驅者。今天,它正將其社區發展模式,“新村運動”,出口到諸如烏干達等尋求效仿韓國經濟成功的國家。韓國成功的一大要素來自于其創新和技術方面的聲譽。三星,LG和其他置身數字革命最前線的企業集團不僅統治著韓國經濟,也是享譽全球的品牌,增強了韓國的國際吸引力。

(譯注:1970年4月,在全國地方行政長官參加的抗旱對策會議上,樸正熙提出了“建設新村運動”的構想,目的是動員農民共同建設“安樂窩”,主要內容包括農民自發修筑鄉村公路、整治村莊環境、幫助鄰里修建房屋、興辦文化事業、關心和照顧孤寡老人等,對韓國經濟快速發展和推動社會和諧發展發揮了重要作用)

South Korea’s economic success has leaned heavily on soft power to open up opportunities for trade. Korea has invested in big ticket events, hosting the 1988 Summer Olympics, co-hosting the 2002 FIFA World Cup, holding the Expo 2012 and, most recently, presenting one of the most diplomatically significant Winter Olympics ever.

韓國的經濟成功一直倚重于軟實力,用它來打開貿易機會。韓國在大型賽事活動中投資,主辦了88年夏季奧運會,合辦了2002年世界杯,主辦了2012年世博會,而最近的一次,是主辦了迄今為止外交意義最為重大的冬奧會之一。

Korean culture is a global success story. Hallyu, Korean Wave, has brought interest and respect to the country. The growth in the popularity of Korean television drama, film and pop music has spread beyond East Asia, to South and Central Asia, the Middle East and North Africa. In the UK Psy’s Gangnam Style remains the best known manifestation of the international phenomenon that is K-Pop, but Korean pop acts have a dedicated following in Continental Europe, Latin America and the Middle East. KCON, the Korean Wave convention, has taken place in LA, Mexico City, Paris, Sydney, Abu Dhabi, Chiba and other cities around the world. Galbi and kimchi are increasingly popular with culinary audiences. Korean films like Train to Busan, Snowpiercer and Oldboy have not only been huge global hits but have also influenced filmmakers in Hollywood, Bollywood and all the other major centres of the movie industry. A successful state-sponsored campaign to promote Taekwondo internationally saw the sport debut in the Opening Ceremony of the 1988 Seoul Olympics and become a full medal sport in the 2000 Sydney Games. The Korean state has cultivated the cultural assets with the highest international appeal and in the process delivered a masterclass in nation branding. People around the world are increasingly wearing, listening, eating, drinking, watching and dancing Korean.

韓國文化是一個在全球成功的故事。韓流已經給這個國家帶來了別國的興趣和尊重。韓國電視劇、韓國電影和韓國流行音樂的走紅已經擴散到了東亞以外的地方,到達了南亞和中亞,乃至中東和北非地區。在英國,Psy的江南Style仍然是國際現象,也即K-Pop最有名的表現,但韓國流行音樂的演出團體在歐陸、拉丁美洲和中東都有一批很投入的追隨者。KCON,即韓流大會,已經在洛杉磯、墨西哥城、巴黎、悉尼、阿布扎比、千葉以及全世界其他城市舉辦。韓國烤肉和泡菜正在烹飪界受眾中日益走紅。諸如《釜山行》、《雪國列車》和《老男孩》等韓國電影不僅在全球大獲成功,而且已經對好萊塢、寶萊塢和其他所有電影工業主要中心的電影制作人們產生了影響。這項運動在88年漢城奧運會上的首次亮相,是一次由國家資助的向國際推廣跆拳道的成功宣傳,而且在2000年悉尼奧運會上成為了正式項目。韓國已經憑借其最高的國際吸引力培育出了文化資產,而且在這個過程中,韓國在宣傳國家品牌時拿出了大師級的表現。全世界的人們正越來越多地穿韓國,聽韓國,吃韓國,喝韓國,看韓國,和跳韓國。

As part of its international relations strategy Korea began a programme of opening Cultural Centres in 2009 as part of a global effort to introduce itself to the world and spread interest in diverse aspects of Korean culture. As of 2016 there were 31 Korean Cultural Centres in 28 countries. Like their European counterparts, the centres organise events and courses under the categories of arts, music, literature, language, film and cuisine. The Korea Foundation is a public diplomacy organisation of the Republic of Korea that serves to enhance understanding of Korea and promote global friendship through exchange activities. It has overseas offices in Washington DC, Los Angeles, Tokyo, Beijing, Moscow, Berlin and Hanoi reflecting the key priority places for Korean diplomacy. However, it also has a more extensive reach through international partnerships with Ministries of Foreign Affairs and cultural and educational institutions, including the Indian Council for Research on International Economic Relations and the Brazilian Ministry of External Relations. The state is also promoting the Korean language through the King Sejong Institute network. As of June 2018 there were 174 language schools, usually embedded in universities, in 57 countries. 23

作為其國際關系戰略的一部分,韓國在2009年啟動了一個開設文化中心的計劃,這是把自己推介給全世界,并傳播對韓國文化方方面面的興趣所付出努力的一部分。截至2016年,在28個國家中有31家韓國文化中心。就像他們的歐洲同行一樣,這類中心會組織藝術、音樂、文學、語言、電影和烹飪等類目范圍內的活動和課程。韓國基金會是大韓民國的一個公共外交機構,旨在增進對韓國的理解,并通過各種交流活動增進全球友誼。它在華盛頓、洛杉磯、東京、北京、莫斯科、柏林和河內設有海外辦公室,可以反映出這是韓國外交的主要優先事項。然而,它通過和外交部以及文化教育機構包括印度國際經濟關系研究委員會和巴西對外關系部之間的國際合作關系,也擁有了更廣闊的覆蓋面。該國也正通過世宗學院的網絡推廣韓語。截至2018年6月,在57個國家擁有174所語言學校,通常是扎根于大學中。



Unlike the international broadcasting platforms of the UK or France, Arirang offers not only news from a Korean point of view but also markets Korea as a destination for tourists by promoting Korea’s cultural, gastronomic and sporting achievements. It’s a different model and focus to the BBC World Service but Korea’s priorities for the service are different to the UK, it wants to raise its profile, showcase its most attractive assets and tell its story. Arirang is part of the state’s deliberate, strategic exercise in nation branding.

與英法的國際廣播平臺不同的是,阿里郎電視臺不僅提供從韓國視角出發的新聞,還通過推廣韓國的文化、美食和體育成就,把韓國當成旅游目的地來營銷。這是一種不同的模式,而且是向BBC全球服務看齊的,但韓國的優先級有別于英國,它要的是提升形象,展示其最吸引人的優點,并講出它自己的故事。阿里郎電視臺是該國在打造國家品牌中刻意為之的戰略性實踐的一部分。

The South Korean reputation for innovation and creativity coupled with both a traditional and cutting edge cultural offer boldly promoted by a nation seeking to build its international influence is making a real difference to global perceptions. The success of the Pyeongchang Winter Olympics, complete with the diplomatic coup of the North’s participation and subsequent There are similarities with the German approach with both states regarded as eschewing the zero-sum approach and being seen to act to build a consensus based on mutual benefits – and in so doing achieve their aims without antagonizing potential rivals.high-profile summit diplomacy and tentative moves towards the normalisation of relations between the nations, has further raised the profile and leverage of South Korea on the global stage. But this success is nothing new. Within the G20 and other international fora, South Korea has long been adroit at building alliances to shape the agenda and drive forward global policy to its advantage. There are similarities with the German approach with both states regarded as eschewing the zero-sum approach and being seen to act to build a consensus based on mutual benefits – and in so doing achieve their aims without antagonizing potential rivals.

韓國在創新和創造力方面的聲譽,結合其既傳統又前沿的文化被一個尋求構建其國際影響力的國家勇敢地推廣了出去,這正在給國際認知帶來真正的改變。平昌冬奧會的成功,連同讓朝鮮參與的外交妙招,之后高姿態的峰會外交,以及為實現國家間關系正?;鞒龅膶嶒炐耘e措,已經進一步提升了韓國在全球舞臺上的受關注度和影響力。但是這種成功并不是新鮮事。在二十國集團和其他國際論壇中,韓國長期以來構建聯盟的手法一直都很嫻熟,以此來左右議程并向著對其有利的方向推動全球政策。這與德國的手法存在相似之處,這兩國都被認為避免了零和的方法,并被視為會為了在互惠互利的基礎上達成共識而采取行動,這樣一來就能在不與潛在對手對抗的情況下實現其目標。