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(原標題)軟實力超級大國

Global trends in cultural engagement and influence

(副標題)全球文化參與與文化影響力變化趨勢

Author: Alistair MacDonald

作者:阿利斯泰爾·麥克唐納


United Kingdom
As well as being a globally significant economic and military power the UK is, according to Portland Communications34 latest league table at least, the world’s leading soft power in 2018.

【英國篇】
英國不僅是全球重要的經濟和軍事強國,根據波特蘭公關公司的最新排行榜,英國也是2018年全球主要的軟實力大國

In a very real sense it is the gold standard against which others measure themselves. But despite its many strengths the UK’s current soft power advantage is no reason for complacency. There are areas of weakness and as we have seen above other states are investing substantial sums in soft power to expand their international influence. There are lessons to learn from other countries that are adopting increasingly innovative approaches to growing their global influence. There is no guarantee that the UK will maintain its leading global position as the Eurasian Century proceeds and leading states across the Global South continue to grow in importance. The UK will need to work hard to retain and grow its international relevance and influence.

英國確實是其他國家衡量自己的黃金標準。不過,盡管坐擁著諸多優勢,英國目前擁有的軟實力優勢,是沒有任何理由去自鳴得意的。是存在弱勢的方面的,而且正如我們在前文中所看到的,其他國家為了擴大其國際影響力,正在大舉投資軟實力??梢越梃b和學習其他國家的做法,后者為了擴大其國際影響力正在越來越多地采取創新性的手法。隨著歐亞世紀繼續推進以及全球南方國家的重要性持續提升,完全無法保證英國還能繼續保持其國際領先地位。英國必須要盡力保持并提升其在國際上的重要性乃至國際影響力。

The UK’s status as a soft power superpower depends on the country’s near-universal diplomatic network and globally recognised institutions like the BBC World Service and British Council, all of which receive funding from the Foreign and Commonwealth Office (FCO). The UK is also noted for consistently outperforming other G20 states for its contributions to international development and for working constructively with partners to meet major global challenges like climate change and to promote free trade. The UK also benefits in soft power terms from its significant strengths in culture and education, the English language and its strong historic and cultural connections with the English speaking world which includes major G20 powers like the US, Canada and India. The UK’s membership of the Commonwealth presents potentially significant opportunities in the years ahead, especially as developing economies like Kenya and Bangladesh realise their massive economic potential.

英國的軟實力超級大國地位,有賴于該國幾乎遍布全球的外交網絡以及諸如BBC全球服務和英國文化協會等得到全球認可的機構,所有這些機構都會從英國外交和聯邦事務部(FCO)得到資金支持。另一個讓英國很出名的方面是:該國對國際發展的貢獻以及與伙伴國家開展建設性的合作以應對諸如氣候變化和推進自由貿易等重大全球挑戰方面,表現得比G20國家好。英國的軟實力也受益于該國在文化和教育領域的巨大優勢、英語,及其與英語世界強有力的歷史和文化聯系,這其中包括了G20中的主要大國如美國、加拿大和印度。特別是隨著諸如肯尼亞和孟加拉國等發展中國家實現其巨大的經濟潛力,英國的英聯邦國家成員身份在今后一些年里可能會給該國帶來重大機遇。



The UK’s top spot in the soft power league tables depends in large part on perceptions of the country as an open, liberal, democratic country that upholds the rules-based international system and acts for the common good. The UK is seen as supporting the political freedoms and other values that the peoples of the world find attractive. Humanitarian interventions, like the action the UK undertook to combat Ebola in West African nations, have enhanced the UK’s international reputation. As the UK looks to define its new role in the world there may be merit in offering greater support for multilateral initiatives like UN peacekeeping – additional UK expertise and technical capability would be welcomed on UN humanitarian missions around the world. The Department for International Development and the FCO have made laudable advances in the promotion of the rights of women and girls and this work must be maintained. The promotion of universal human rights is the absolute responsibility of free and democratic states but it is also essential to their international influence and appeal. Some have argued that the UK has in recent years been somewhat muted in its criticism of the worst abuses of authoritarian states. If it prioritises economic pragmatism over principle it could risk undermining its soft power and influence in global fora like the UN General Assembly and the court of global public opinion. A continued emphasis on values and the common good will be crucially important going forward. Indeed it is essential for both restoring the trust and confidence of European allies and for reaching out beyond the EU to the rest of the world. An increase in the resources available to the Westminster Foundation for Democracy and the Magna Carta Fund for Human Rights and Democracy would, for example increase the impact and visibility of the UK’s human rights work with consequential gains in soft power.

英國在軟實力排行榜上占據首位在很大程度上有賴于世界對該國的看法:一個開放的、自由的、民主的國家,維護著基于規則的國際體系,并會為了共同利益而采取行動。認為英國會去支持對全世界人民都有吸引力的政治自由和其他一些價值觀。人道主義干預,比如英國為了抗擊埃博拉病毒而在西非國家采取的行動,已經提升了其在全世界的聲望。由于英國尋求定義其在世界中的新角色,也許會在給諸如聯合國維和等多邊倡議提供更大支持方面有上佳表現,英國在這方面高人一等的特長和技術能力,會在全世界范圍內展開的聯合國人道主義任務中受到歡迎。國際發展部以及外交和聯邦事務部在促進婦女權益方面已經取得了足以讓人贊賞的進展,而且這方面的工作必須堅持下去。促進全世界的人權絕對是自由民主國家的責任,但這對于它們的國際影響力及其在國際上的吸引力也是至關重要的。有些人主張過,在對專制國家的批評方面,英國近些年是有些緘默了。如果該國在優先級上把經濟實用主義置于原則之前,在全球論壇比如聯合國大會和全球輿論法庭中,可能就會存在其軟實力和影響力遭到削弱的風險。在前進道路上繼續強調價值觀和共同利益將是至關重要的。讓歐洲盟友恢復對英國的信任和信心,以及把影響力延伸到歐盟以外乃至全世界其他國家,這兩者確實都是至關重要的。增加威斯敏斯特民主基金會和《大憲章》人權與民主基金能動用的資源,會提升英國人權工作的影響和能見度,并間接地對軟實力產生助益。

Socio-cultural and educational ‘assets’ are a key part of the UK’s international attractiveness. The UK’s universities are globally recognised and draw students from around the world to the UK. Having recently lost its long-held position as the number two global destination for international students to Australia it is very much in the UK’s interest to learn from its rivals and review its immigration policies with regards to students and researchers. Australia’s success in growing market share can be traced to the changes made to immigration policy following the Knight Review of 2011 – just as the comparatively flat performance of the UK since 2010 is consistent with the tightening of its visa regulations.

社會文化和教育領域的“資產”是英國國際吸引力的一個關鍵組成部分。英國的大學得到了全球的認可,并把全世界的學生吸引到了英國來。最近,英國把自己長期把持的第二大國際學生目的地國輸給了澳大利亞,向對手學習,并重新審視其針對學生和研究人員的移民政策,是非常符合英國的利益的。澳大利亞在擴大市場份額方面的成功,可以追溯到2011年奈特評估之后對移民政策作出的改變,相較之下英國就表現平平了,從2010年起,英國自始至終都在收緊其簽證政策。

(譯注:the Knight Review(奈特評估)即Strategic Review of the Student Visa Program 2011(2011年學生簽證方案戰略評估),由邁克爾·奈特組織進行)



(譯注:迷你硅谷位于倫敦東區的肖爾迪奇(Shoreditch),2010年英國政府頒布了一項支持“迷你硅谷”發展的計劃,將包括奧林匹克公園在內的東倫敦建造成高科技產業中心,命名為“東倫敦科技城”)

If the ambitions for the BBC World Service are matched with investment in the other engines of the UK’s soft power the UK’s status as a soft power superpower can be secured for the medium and long term, with all the benefits that entails for the UK’s prosperity and security in the years ahead. However, that status depends on more than just funding. The UK needs the right kind of Brexit, an open Brexit and a vision beyond that which looks outward rather than inward, that rejects the traps of popularism and nativism and reinvents the UK as a more global nation. The UK’s soft power depends on it being continued to be viewed as stalwart of liberal values and the rules-based international system; as a champion of universal human rights, free trade and freedom of expression; and as a reliable friend committed to the common good and the betterment of other peoples. The Brexit negotiations are textbook example – they are anything but a zero sum game with success reliant on trust and goodwill on both sides. Morality, values and being seen as acting for the common good have long been at the heart of the UK’s soft power but in the world today they are absolutely essential to its success.

如果BBC全球服務的雄心,能匹配上對驅動英國軟實力的其他引擎的投資,就能在中長期內確保英國作為一個軟實力超級大國的地位,在未來的年代里,所有這些優勢都是英國的繁榮與安全所必需的。然而,撐持這種地位的可不只是提供資金而已。英國需要的是正確的脫歐方式,一次開放的脫歐,以及一種超越前者的視野,須得是外向而不是內向的,并拒絕掉進民粹主義和本土主義的陷阱,還能把英國重塑為一個更全球化的國家。英國的軟實力有賴于它繼續被視為自由價值觀和基于規則的國際體系的忠誠擁護者,一個普世人權、自由貿易和言論自由的冠軍,一個致力于共同利益以及讓其他人變得更好的可靠的朋友。脫歐談判就是教科書式的范例,它們絕對不會是零和游戲,其成功有賴于雙邊的信任和善意。道德,價值觀,以及被看成能為共同利益而行動,長久以來一直是英國軟實力的核心,但在當今世界,它們對于英國的成功絕對是至關重要的。