原創翻譯:龍騰網 http://www.ktxyyo.live 翻譯:刀槍不入 轉載請注明出處

One of the main reasons the Roman civilization managed to occupy such a vast territory and then lasted for so long was its military fighting prowess. However, while the Romans did win amazing victories, they also figured in some of the worst military disasters ever, proving to us that no fighting force in history can ever be truly invincible.

羅馬文明擁有廣闊的疆域并持續如此之久的原因之一正在于其軍事力量。雖然羅馬人曾經贏得過許多輝煌勝利,但他們遭受了最可怕的軍事災難,這一事實告訴我們歷史上沒有任何軍事力量是完全不可戰勝的。

10、Battle Of Abrittus
A.D. 251

01

Photo credit: Vladimir Petkov This battle marked the first time that a Roman emperor died at the hands ofa foreign enemy.

發生在公元251年的阿伯里圖斯戰役標志著羅馬皇帝首次死于外敵之手。

Set in the modern-day city of Razgrad, Bulgaria, the battle pitted the Romans—led by the co-emperors Decius and his son Herennius—against the Goths. Though previous clashes between the two sides had been back-and-forth-affairs, the decisive battle happened when the Goths’ wily leader, a chieftain named Cniva, managed to bait the main Roman army into entering a swamp. With the Romans bogged down and immobilized, Cniva’s army successfully surrounded them and began a wholesale slaughter.

在今天保加利亞的拉茲格勒,共治皇帝德烏西斯及其兒子赫倫尼烏斯領導的抗擊哥特人的戰役讓羅馬人陷入困境。雖然雙方之前的沖突經歷了反復的拉鋸戰,但在決定性戰役中哥特人狡猾的首領瓦尼把羅馬主力軍誘騙進了沼澤。當羅馬人陷入困境無法動彈時,瓦尼的軍隊成功地包圍了他們并實施了大屠殺。

Although no exact numbers record what happened, it is speculated that Cniva’s forces virtually annihilated the Romans, taking away wagons full of prisoners and war booty after the carnage had finished. Subsequently, this victory allowed the Goths free rein to plunder nearby cities and also force Rome to pay a humiliating annual tribute.

雖然這行戰爭沒有精確的數據記載,但是瓦尼的軍隊實際上消滅了羅馬軍隊,帶走的俘虜裝滿了馬車,大肆屠殺后帶著戰利品返回了。接下來,對羅馬人的戰爭勝利讓他們能夠自由地劫掠周圍城市并強迫羅馬屈辱地年年納貢。

9、Battle Of The Allia
390 B.C.

02

This battle, which culminated in the First Sack of Rome, saw 70,000 men from the Gallic tribe of Senones defeat a smaller Roman force of 24,000–40,000 soldiers.

發生于公元前390年的阿里亞河之戰以對羅馬的首次洗劫告終。來自塞農地區高盧部落的七萬軍隊擊敗了較小的一只羅馬軍隊——大約兩萬四千人到四萬人.



8、Battle Of The Caudine Forks

考狄烏姆岔口之戰

320 B.C.

03

Set during the Roman Republic’s second war with another Italic tribe called the Samnites, this incident did not involve bloodshed—yet it dealt a grievous blow to Roman pride anyway.

羅馬共和國與另一支叫做薩謨奈的意大利部落發生的第二次戰爭雖然沒有流血事件,但是沉重打擊了羅馬的驕傲。

Upon learning the Romans had amassed a large army to invade his homeland, the Samnite leader Gaius Pontius devised a clever scheme to defeat the enemy. He dressed some of his men as shepherds and had them deceive the passing Roman army into taking a narrow road called the Caudine Forks. When the Romans reached the end, they discovered that it had been barricaded with a wall of stones and trees. Doubling back, they found that the entrance had also been closed off.

得知羅馬人集結大軍要入侵他的家鄉,薩謨奈人首領蓋尤斯·龐提烏斯想出了打敗敵軍的絕妙計謀。他讓一些部下化裝成牧羊人并誘騙路過的羅馬軍隊進入一個叫做考狄烏姆岔口的狹長小路。當他們走到盡頭的時候就發現這條路已經被石墻和密林遮蔽了,想折返回去卻發現出口被堵住了。

Surrounded by the Samnites on all sides and with no chance of escape, the Roman army had no choice but to capitulate. Gaius Pontius imposed on the Romans a humiliating peace treaty, which included the indignity of letting all the captured Romans pass under a yoke made up of spears. Ashamed by this defeat, the Roman army disbanded and slunk home.

被薩謨奈人四面包圍,無路可逃,羅馬人除了投降別無選擇。 蓋尤斯·龐提烏斯強迫羅馬人接受了屈辱的和平條約,其中包括羞辱性的懲罰,如讓被俘羅馬士兵在長矛制成的軛下經過。因為這次戰敗顏面無光的羅馬軍隊只好解散了并偷偷溜回了家鄉。

7、Battle Of Cap Bon
A.D. 468

卡本半島之戰
公元468年

04

Photo credit: Fourat/Panoramio
Just like the army, the Roman navy has had its fair share of military disasters. In this one, a joint naval expedition (reputedly one the biggest in ancient times) by the Empire and the independent province of Illiricum against the Vandal Kingdom ended in a huge lopsided defeat.

就像其陸軍一樣,羅馬海軍也遭受了慘白。在這次的戰役中,羅馬和獨立省份Illiricum派出了一支聯合海軍遠征部隊(可以說是古代歷史上規模最大的一支)以對付汪達爾王國,但最終慘敗。

Led by the Eastern Emperor Leo I’s brother-in-law Basiliscus, the massive fleet totaled more than 1,000 ships containing 100,000 men. Upon arriving in the peninsula of Cap Bon near Carthage, Basiliscus came under negotiations with the Vandal King Genseric, who requested more time to consider a peace treaty. During that time, Genseric secretly prepared fire ships to destroy the docked Roman fleet.

這支海軍部隊由東方帝皇利奧一世的妹夫Basiliscus帶領,總共1000艘戰船,10萬名軍人。在抵達迦太基附近的卡本半島時,Basiliscus與汪達爾王進行了談判,汪達爾王要求獲得更多時間來考慮是否簽訂和平協議。在這期間,汪達爾王秘密組織火船摧毀了靠岸的羅馬艦隊。

Attacking at night, these ships managed to successfully wreak havoc on the Romans, forcing Basiliscus to flee in confusion and leaving the fleet at the mercy of the Vandals. In the aftermath, Leo I had to sue for peace as the Romans lost 70 percent of their original forces.

由于是在晚上發起攻擊,所以打得羅馬部隊落花流水,主帥 Basiliscus 倉皇逃脫,讓自己的艦隊落入汪達爾人之手。隨后,利皇一世不得不尋求和平,因為羅馬失去了70%的原始部隊.

6、Battle Of Arausio
105 B.C.

阿勞西奧戰役
公元105年

05

Photo credit: Alexandre-Gabriel Decamps

圖片來源 亞歷山大·加百利·德康



5、Battle Of The Trebia
218 B.C.

5、特利比亞河之戰

06

Before he finally met his match in the excellent Roman tactician Scipio Africanus, it seemed no one could best Carthaginian general Hannibal. Even after having his army dilapidated after crossing the treacherous Alps, Hannibal wasted no time showing the Romans his military genius.

在最終遇上羅馬一代名將西庇阿之前,似乎這世界上沒有人能打敗漢尼拔這位偉大的迦太基統帥。即使他的部隊在翻越那危險重重的阿爾卑斯山脈后已經疲憊不堪,但漢尼拔還是迅速向羅馬帝國展示了他卓越的軍事才華。

In one of their first major engagements, Hannibal’s clever use of tactics enabled his forces to defeat a far larger Roman army. Taking camp on opposite sides of a river on a winter day, Hannibal had his cavalrymen attack the Roman camp in the early morning to bait them into crossing the water. He also carefully hid his younger brother Mago along with some soldiers to ambush the unsuspecting Romans in their flank and rear the moment the two sides clashed.

在這場戰役中,漢尼拔天才般的運用一系列計謀率領他的部隊擊敗了規模遠勝于他的羅馬軍隊。當時正是寒冬,漢尼拔在特利比亞河的一側扎營,第二天一早,漢尼拔首先派出他的騎兵襲擊了羅馬軍隊并成功的誘使羅馬軍隊過河追擊。他早就安排好了他的弟弟馬戈帶領一支部隊小心的埋伏在一邊,就在毫無戒心的羅馬軍隊與漢尼拔的部隊正面交鋒的時候,馬戈突襲了羅馬人的側后。

The tactic resulted in a devastating Roman defeat. Survivors who tried to flee across the river either drowned or froze to death; the rest were chased and struck down by the Carthaginians. At the end of the battle, only one-fourthof the 40,000 Romans successfully escaped Hannibal’s army. Unfortunately for the Romans, this battle would foreshadow their next, more complete defeat.

這計謀給予了羅馬軍隊毀滅性的打擊。那些想要渡過河流逃跑的羅馬潰兵要么被淹死,要么被凍死,剩下的也被迦太基軍隊殺死或俘虜。最終,40000羅馬大軍只有四分之一成功的逃脫戰場。更悲哀的是,對羅馬來說,這場戰役預兆著他們下一場更大更徹底的戰敗。

4、Battle Of Lake Trasimene
217 B.C.

4、特拉西梅諾湖戰役
公元前217年

07

While thousands of Romans had been able to save themselves in the previous battle, this time there would be no escape for them. In what could be described as one of the most perfect ambushes in history, Hannibal’s 55,000-strong army totally routed a force of 30,000 Roman soldiers.

上次戰役中還有幾千名羅馬士兵逃走,然而這次老天沒有給羅馬人絲毫機會。此次戰役被認為是歷史上最成功的伏擊戰之一,漢尼拔率領的55,000大軍把30,000羅馬軍隊虐出了翔。

The Romans, led by Gaius Flaminius, had been chasing Hannibal’s army when they came upon a narrow road situated between Lake Trasimene and some heavily wooded hills. Unaware that the Carthaginians had concealed themselves in the forests, the Romans marched single-file along the road. Covered in the mist of the early morning, the Carthaginians charged and massacred the hapless Romans, who had no means of escape.

當羅馬軍隊在弗拉米尼烏斯的指揮下來到這條位于特拉西梅諾湖和茂密山林間的小路上的時候還在追擊漢尼拔的軍隊。羅馬軍隊在小路上單列行軍,卻絲毫不知道迦太基人就躲在旁邊茂密的森林里。在拂曉濃霧的掩護下,迦太基人沖擊并屠殺了這些絕望的羅馬人,后者根本無處可逃。

In three hours, the Carthaginians killed 15,000 Roman soldiers (including Flaminius) and took another 15,000 prisoner while suffering only 1,500 killed. Subsequently, the Carthaginians also ambushed and slaughtered a 4,000-strong cavalry sent to reinforce the devastated army, further adding to the Roman defeat.

三小時內,迦太基人殺死了15,000 名羅馬士兵(包括弗拉米尼烏斯)并俘虜了15,000人,而迦太基僅有1,500人戰死。隨后,迦太基人又伏擊并消滅了前來支援的4,000精銳羅馬騎兵,加劇了羅馬人的損失。

3、Battle Of Edessa
A.D. 260

埃德薩戰役
公元260年

08

Photo credit: Fabien Dany
In another ignominious first, the Battle of Edessa would be best remembered in history as the first time a Roman emperor had ever been captured in battle.
The Romans had hoped to stop the frequent Sassanid incursions led by King Shapur I on their territories in Asia Minor and so sent a 70,000-strong forceunder the aging Emperor Valerian to confront them. The expedition proved to be a disaster; although Valerian won an initial battle, a plague struck his forces, who also soon found themselves completely surrounded by King Shapur I’s army.
Seeing no other option, Valerian and a few of his officials tried to negotiate with the Sassanids but ended up as prisoners instead, causing the rest of the Romans—60,000 of them—to surrender. Valerian spent the rest of his life in captivity in Persia, where some accounts say he became Shapur’s personal footstool and had his body stuffed and displayed after his death.

另一場可恥的戰敗,埃德薩戰役,被歷史所銘記因為在這場戰役中第一次有一位羅馬皇帝被俘虜。
由沙普爾一世統治的波斯薩珊王朝經常騷擾羅馬帝國在小亞細亞的邊界,為了阻止這些入侵,一只70,000人組成的強大軍隊在年邁的羅馬皇帝瓦勒良的率領下出發了。這次遠征的結果是災難性的。雖然一開始瓦勒良取得了一些勝利,但一場瘟疫突然在全軍蔓延,同時,羅馬軍隊很快發現自己被沙普爾一世的大軍完全包圍了。
瓦勒良沒有別的選擇,只好帶著一些大臣去和沙普爾一世談判,結果反而被俘虜了,這又導致剩余的羅馬軍隊--60,000人--投降了。瓦勒良被監禁在了波斯并在那里度過了余生,有人說他成為了沙普爾一世的人型腳凳,并且他在死后尸體還被填充和展覽。

2、Battle Of The Upper Baetis
211 B.C.

比提斯河上游戰役
公元前211年

09

Photo credit: Shakko /Wikimedia

照片提供:Shakko /維基媒體

Hannibal wasn’t the only Barca who could mess with the Romans; his more cautious brother Hasdrubal proved that he, too, could school the Romans in the art of warfare.

漢尼拔不是巴卡家族唯一敢挑戰羅馬人的人;他的兄弟哈斯德魯伯更謹慎細致,證明在戰爭藝術上他也能做羅馬人的老師。

In two separate engagements in Spain, three Carthaginian forces separately defeated Roman armies led by the Scipio brothers—Publius Cornelius (the father of Scipio Africanus) and Gnaeus Cornelius Scipio Calvus. In the first battle at Castulo, the Carthaginians slaughtered the Romans. Afterward, the victorious duo of leaders Mago and Hasdrubal Gisco met up with Hasdrubal’s forces to engage the Roman army under Gnaeus.

在西班牙的兩場獨立戰斗中,西庇阿兄弟——普布利烏斯?9?9科爾內利烏斯(Publius Cornelius)(大西庇阿的父親)和蓋尤斯·科尼利厄斯·西庇阿·考文斯(Gnaeus Cornelius Scipio Calvus)——率領的三支迦太基軍隊分別打敗了羅馬敵軍。在卡斯圖洛(Castulo)的首場戰斗中,迦太基人屠殺了羅馬人。隨后,獲勝的兄弟倆曼戈(Mago)和哈斯德魯伯·吉斯科(Hasdrubal Gisco)與哈斯德魯伯的軍隊匯合,再與阿格里科拉率領的羅馬軍隊交戰。

Greatly outnumbered (Hasdrubal also bribed the mercenaries in the Roman army to defect), the Romans were decisively beaten by the Carthaginians in the battle at Ilorca. In the two battles’ aftermath, a total of 22,000 Romans—the Scipio brothers included—out of the original 50,000 had either been slain or captured.

羅馬軍隊數量遠不及對手(漢尼拔還賄賂羅馬軍隊中的雇傭軍,讓他們叛變),在伊洛爾卡(Ilorca)進行的戰斗中遭到迦太基人沉重打擊。經過這兩場戰斗,原來50000人中共計22000名的羅馬戰士——包括西庇阿兄弟在內——被殺或者被俘。

1、Battle Of Adrianople
A.D. 378

1、阿德里安堡戰役
公元378年

10

Historians have called this the battle the starting point of the collapse of the Western Roman Empire.
Valens, the emperor of the eastern part of the empire, had called upon his nephew, the Western emperor Gratian, for assistance in quelling a Gothic uprising in Thrace. However, jealous of his nephew’s success in defeating the Goths’ Germanic allies en route to their rendezvous, Valens decided to seize glory for himself by attacking the Goths head-on outside the city of Adrianople.
With 40,000–50,000 Roman soldiers, Valens attacked what he wrongly thought to be a numerically inferior Gothic force. In reality, the latter numbered twice as many as the Romans and was composed mainly of heavy cavalry. Led by their chieftain Fritigern, the Goths enveloped and massacred the Romans in a manner similar to what happened in Cannae. By the time the battle ended, two-thirds of the Roman army, including the emperor, lay dead on the battlefield.

歷史學家認為這場戰役是西羅馬帝國由盛轉衰的轉折點。
東羅馬帝國皇帝瓦林斯號召西羅馬帝國的皇帝格拉提安,也就是他的外甥,協助他壓制在色雷斯崛起的哥特人。但是,由于嫉妒他外甥擊敗哥特日耳曼盟友的功績,瓦林斯在帶領軍隊前往與西羅馬軍隊匯合點的途中為了獨吞戰果決定獨自在阿德里安堡城外攻擊哥特人。
瓦林斯率領40,000-50,000人的羅馬軍隊攻擊了他錯誤的認為人數處劣勢的哥特人。但事實上,哥特軍隊人數是羅馬軍隊的兩倍并主要是重騎兵!哥特軍隊在他們的酋長菲列德根的指揮下,包圍并屠殺了羅馬軍隊,昔年坎尼會戰的悲劇再一次上演!到戰爭結束時,三分之二的羅馬士兵,包括他們的皇帝,永遠的倒在了這片戰場上。