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It's no secret that European colonialism was a vast, and often devastating, project that over several centuries put nearly the entire world under control of one European power or another. But just how vast can be difficult to fully appreciate.

眾所周知,歐洲殖民主義是一項巨大的,通常也是頗具毀滅性的的工程。長達多個世紀,整個世界不是被這個就是被另外一個歐洲列強所控制。但是這個工程具體有多大卻很少有人認知。

Here, to give you a small sense of European colonialism's massive scale, is a map showing every country put under partial or total European control during the colonial era, which ran roughly from the 1500s to the 1960s. Only five countries, in orange, were spared:

在這里,我們將小小的跟您展示下歐洲殖民主義的巨大規模。下面這張地圖展示了從16世紀到20世紀60年代的殖民時代,那些曾部分或者舉國被歐洲殖民過的國家。只有五個國家,被標為橙色,幸免于難。



Most of the areas under spheres of influence on this map were politically dominated by the British, who ruled through proxies: Afghanistan (which also endured Russian influence), Bhutan, and Nepal. Mongolia was effectively a proxy state of the Soviet unx for much of the Cold War.

這張勢力范圍地圖上的大部分地區被英國通過扶植代理人的方式統治, 如阿富汗(也受到俄國影響)、不丹、尼泊爾。蒙古在大部分冷戰時期實際是蘇聯扶植的代理國家。

Something similar happened in China, where European powers established parts of coastal cities or trade ports as "concessions," which they occupied and controlled. Some, such as Shanghai, were divided into multiple European concessions. Others, like British-controlled Hong Kong, were fully absorbed into the European empires. This is why China is labelled as partially dominated by Europe.

相似的事情也發生在中國,在那里歐洲帝國主義把部分沿海城市或貿易港口作為他們占領并管理的特權區。比如上海就被分為了多個歐洲國家的租界。另外如英國掌控的香港,是被完全置于了歐洲帝國的統治之下。這就是為什么中國被稱為歐洲的半殖民地的原因。

Modern-day Saudi Arabia came under partial domination; in the early 1900s, most of the Arabian peninsula transitioned from the Ottoman Empire to the British Empire, though the British left much of the peninsula's vast interior relatively untouched. Parts of modern-day Turkey itself were divided among World War One's European victors, though Turkish nationalists successfully expelled them almost immediately in a war for independence that established modern-day Turkey.

現代沙特阿拉伯也曾被歐洲部分統治。 在20世紀初期, 盡管沒有染指半島的廣大內陸地區,大英帝國從奧斯曼土耳其帝國手中奪取了絕大部分阿拉伯半島的治權。盡管土耳其國家主義者在短時間內成功的通過獨立戰爭趕跑了殖民者并建立了現代的土耳其國,這個國家的部分也還是被一戰戰勝國瓜分過。



There are only four countries that escaped European colonialism completely. Japan and Korea successfully staved off European domination, in part due to their strength and diplomacy, their isolationist policies, and perhaps their distance. Thailand was spared when the British and French Empires decided to let it remained independent as a buffer between British-controlled Burma and French Indochina. Japan, however, colonized both Korea and Thailand itself during its early-20th-century imperial period.

只有四個國家完完全全的沒有遭受過歐洲殖民者的入侵。日本,高麗之所以能夠逃離魔爪,部分原因是因為其外交斡旋能力,其孤立主義的國策以及跟歐洲本部之間的距離。泰國的幸免于難是因為英帝國和法帝國決定在英屬緬甸和法屬支那之間留一個獨立的緩沖國。但是,日本在其20世紀初期的帝國時期就占領了高麗跟泰國。



The colonial period began its end after World War Two, when the devastated nations of Western Europe could no longer afford to exert such global influence and as global norms shifted against them. The turning point is sometimes considered the 1956 Suez Crisis, in which the US and Soviet unx pressured British and French troops to withdraw after invading Egypt to seize the Suez Canal with Israeli help. But it took a couple of decades for the European colonialism to fully collapse; France was fighting for Algeria until 1962 and Portugal did not abandon its African colonies until 1974. So this map, of a European-dominated world, is not as distant as it may feel for many Americans.

殖民時代于二戰結束后開始緩緩落下帷幕。滿目瘡痍的西歐國家已無力維持其全球的影響力,尤其在當時反殖民主義已經是全球共識。1956年的蘇伊士運河時間加速了其衰落進程。當法英和以色列在入侵埃及后打算侵占蘇伊士運河時,美國和蘇聯對其施壓要其撤軍。但是,幾十年過后,歐洲殖民主義才真正退出歷史舞臺:直到1963年法國才停止對阿爾及利亞的軍事行動,直到1974年,葡萄牙才放棄其在非洲的殖民地。因此,許多美國人對這幅描述了歐洲治世的地圖并不感到陌生。