原創翻譯:龍騰網 http://www.ktxyyo.live 翻譯:zzz9066 轉載請注明出處

There are four major missions bound for Mars this year, with the USA, Europe, China and the United Arab Emirates all preparing to depart in the summer.

今年有四個主要的火星任務,美國、歐洲、中國和阿拉伯聯合酋長國都準備在夏天起程。

The flurry of Martian launches are due to the fact that, in July 2020, Earth and Mars are ideally positioned relative to each other for spaceships to land.

火星的發射熱潮是由于,2020年7月,地球和火星的位置相對理想,可以讓宇宙飛船順利著陸。

Three of the four missions will see rovers landing on the planet in search of ancient signs of life, the other mission will see a UAE-built orbiter study the atmosphere.

這四個任務中的三個將會有火星漫游車登陸火星尋找古代生命跡象,另一個任務是阿聯酋建造的軌道飛行器研究大氣。

There are hundreds of other space missions in 2020 not going to Mars, including the first commercially operated flights to the International Space Station.

在2020年,還有數百個其他并非前往火星的太空任務,包括首次飛往國際空間站的商業飛行。

There will also be hundreds of new satellites sent into space by SpaceX and OneWeb as part of their ''clusters''.

SpaceX和OneWeb還將向太空發射數百顆新衛星,作為它們的“集群”的一部分。

Here are the big launches to watch out for in 2020.

以下是2020年值得關注的重大發射。



(NASA''s Mars 2020 Rover will pick up samples of rock and soil from the red planet, deposit them in tubes and leave them on the ground for a future mission to return them to Earth.)

(美國國家航空航天局的火星2020探測車將從這顆紅色星球上采集巖石和土壤樣本,將它們儲存在導管里,并留在地面上,以便未來將它們送回地球。)

NASA Mars 2020 rover launch

美國宇航局火星2020探測器發射

By July all the talk will be of Mars, as rovers destined for the Red Planet are launched by by Europe, America and China.

到7月,所有的話題都將圍繞火星,因為歐洲、美國和中國都將發射前往火星的探測車。



(There are multiple missions to Mars in 2020 due to its optimum position relative to Earth, making journeys shorter than they would be otherwise)

(由于火星相對于地球的最佳位置,2020年將有多個火星探測任務,這將縮短火星探測的行程)

NASA is launching the Mars 2020 Rover and the Mars Helicopter Scout to gather rock samples for an eventual return to Earth.

美國國家航空航天局將發射火星2020探測車和火星直升機,收集巖石樣本,最終送回地球。



ESA and Roscosmos ExoMars mission

歐洲航天局和俄羅斯航天局的火星太空生物任務

The European Space Agency (ESA) are working with the Russian Space Agency (Roscosmos) to launch the Rosalind Franklin rover using the Kazachok lander.

歐洲航天局正在與俄羅斯航天局合作,使用哥薩克著陸器發射羅莎琳德 富蘭克林漫游車。



(The European Space Agency''s Rosalind Franklin Rover has been named after the English chemist who helped unlock the secrets of DNA. It will launch in July 2020)

(歐洲航天局的羅莎琳德 富蘭克林探測器以幫助解開DNA秘密的英國化學家的名字命名。它將于2020年7月發射)

The Rosalind Franklin, previously called the ExoMars rover, is named after the English chemist who made key contributions to the understanding of the molecular structures of DNA, RNA, viruses, coal and graphite.

羅莎琳德 富蘭克林之前被稱為火星太空生物漫游車,它是以一位英國化學家的名字命名的。這位化學家在認識DNA、RNA、病毒、煤和石墨的分子結構方面做出了關鍵貢獻。

Like the NASA Mars 2020 rover, the Rosalind Franklin''s goal is to find out whether life has ever existed on the Red Planet.

和美國宇航局的2020年火星探測器一樣,羅莎琳德 富蘭克林的目標是查明火星上是否存在生命。

The British-built rover will head out on an eight month mission that will see it travel 330ft per day as part of its study of the surface of the Red Planet.

這輛英國制造的火星車將執行為期8個月的任務,每天行駛330英尺,這是它對火星表面研究的一部分。

The Trace Gas Orbiter, which has been at Mars since October 2016, will act as a relay station for the mission that also includes the Russian stationary service platform.

自2016年10月以來一直在火星的微量氣體軌道器將作為任務的中繼站,還包括俄羅斯的固定服務平臺。

China''s Mars Global Remote Sensing Orbiter, Lander and Small Rover mission

中國的火星全球遙感軌道器、著陸器和小型漫游車任務

China are sending the Mars Global Remote Sensing Orbiter and Small Rover to the planet - the first Chinese mission to another planet using its own delivery vehicle.

中國將向火星發射全球遙感衛星和小型探測器,這是中國首次使用自己的運載工具前往另一個星球。



(In 2020 China will launch a mission to Mars that will see it deploy a lander and an orbiter over the Red Planet)

(2020年,中國將發射火星探測器,在火星上空部署著陸器和軌道飛行器)

The Chinese mission will launch in July 2020 on board the Long March 5 heavy lift rocket in search for evidence of past life and to assess the planet''s environment.

中國將于2020年7月發射“長征五號”重型運載火箭,以尋找過去生命的存在證據,并對火星環境進行評估。

On December 27 China successfully tested the Long March 5 by launching a test satellite into low Earth orbit.

12月27日,中國發射了一顆測試衛星進入近地軌道,成功測試了長征五號。

The solar-powered rover will carry ground-penetrating radar, multi spectral camera, a Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy instrument and payloads for detecting the climate and magnetic environment.

太陽能漫游者將攜帶探地雷達、多光譜照相機、激光誘導擊穿光譜學儀器,以及探測氣候和磁環境的有效載荷。

UAE''s Hope Mars Mission

阿聯酋的希望火星任務

The United Arab Emirates are also planning to launch for the Red Planet. They are launching the Hope Mars Mission orbiter on a Japanese rocket in July 2020.

阿聯酋也計劃向火星發射。他們將于2020年7月用日本火箭發射希望火星任務軌道飛行器。



(The United Arab Emirates are also launching a probe for Mars in 2020 that will see it study the lower atmosphere on the Red Planet)

(阿聯酋也將在2020年發射火星探測器,研究火星的低層大氣)



ESA and NASA Solar Orbiter launch

歐洲航天局和美國國家航空航天局發射太陽軌道飛行器

In February the European Space Agency are launching the Solar Orbiter on board an Atlas V from Cape Canaveral in the USA.

今年2月,歐洲航天局將在美國卡納維拉爾角發射“阿特拉斯5號”太陽軌道飛行器。



(The European Space Agency are launching their Solar Orbiter in 2020 in the hope of discovering the secrets of how the Sun''s ''Plasma Bubble'' envelops the solar system)

(歐洲航天局將于2020年發射他們的太陽軌道飛行器,希望發現太陽的“等離子體泡”如何包裹太陽系的秘密)

Its goal is to help astronomers understand how our star creates and controls the giant bubble of plasma that surrounds the whole solar system.

它的目標是幫助天文學家了解我們的恒星如何產生和控制環繞整個太陽系的巨大的等離子泡。

The mission in collaboration with NASA, will investigate how this solar fired plasma bubble influences the planets within it.

該任務與美國國家航空航天局合作,將調查這個由太陽發射的等離子體泡如何影響其內部的行星。

Once in space the craft will repeatedly use the gravity of Venus and Earth to raise its orbit above the poles of the Sun.

一旦進入太空,飛船將反復利用金星和地球的引力,將軌道抬高到太陽兩極以上。

ESA says this will provide new perspectives on our star, including the first images of the Sun’s polar regions ever captured.

歐洲航天局表示,這將為我們的恒星提供新的視角,包括首次捕捉到的太陽極地區域的圖像。

NASA Orion lunar spacecraft launch

美國宇航局發射獵戶座月球飛船

The first flight of the Orion lunar spacecraft is also due to happen in 2020 - launching on the new NASA Space Launch System (SLS) rockets.

獵戶座月球飛船的首次飛行也將在2020年進行,屆時將使用美國國家航空航天局的新型太空發射系統 (SLS) 火箭進行發射。



(In 2020 in Orion spacecraft will fly to the moon in a test flight for the Artemis mission that will eventually see the first woman and next man step foot on the lunar surface)

(2020年,獵戶座飛船將飛往月球,執行阿爾忒彌斯計劃的試飛任務,最終將會看到第一位女性踏上月球表面。)

The SLS will be the largest rocket ever built and will get the Artemis astronauts to the moon, carry parts into space for the Lunar Gateway space station, and launch future some commercial International Space Station missions.

SLS火箭將是有史以來建造的最大的火箭,它將把阿爾忒彌斯計劃的宇航員送上月球,并攜帶著月球門戶空間站的部件進入太空,在未來將發射一些商業國際空間站任務。

Artemis 1 will see the uncrewed Orion craft spend three weeks in space including a six day retrograde orbit around the moon.

在阿爾忒彌斯的第一階段,無人駕駛的獵戶座飛船將在太空中度過三周,其中包括繞月逆行六天。

The launch, expected for November 2020, is designed as a test of the module that will take astronauts back to the moon in 2024.

這次發射預計在2020年11月進行,目的是測試2024年將宇航員帶回月球的組件。

There is speculation the SLS and first uncrewed Artemis flight around the moon could slip until 2021, but at the time of writing it was scheduled for 2020.

有人猜測,SLS和首次無人駕駛的阿爾忒彌斯號繞月飛行可能會推遲到2021年,但在撰寫本文時,計劃是2020年。

ISS astronaut launches

國際空間站宇航員發射

It’s not just the rovers and uncrewed modules having all the fun – there will be crewed missions from Virgin Galactic, China, SpaceX and Boeing in 2020.

不僅僅有漫游車和無人駕駛的太空艙,在2020年,維珍銀河、中國、太空探索技術公司和波音公司都將完成載人航天任務。



(SpaceX are one of two commercial companies expected to start operating flights to the International Space Station for international astronaut crew in 2020)

(SpaceX是兩家有望在2020年開始向國際空間站運送國際宇航員的商業公司之一)

There will also be a crew change on board the International Space Station as Russian and American crew change over on the space station.

隨著俄羅斯和美國在國際空間站上的換班,國際空間站上的宇航員也將進行換班。

The first two missions there and back will be on board Russian owned Soyuz crafts but NASA says a commercial ship will take crew to the ISS in May.

前兩次前往國際空間站并返回的任務將由俄羅斯的聯盟號飛船執行,但是美國宇航局表示,一艘商業飛船將在5月把宇航員送往國際空間站。

The SpaceX Dragon 2 module is due to take Expedition 64 and 65 to the station in May as part of the NASA Commercial Crew program - including two American and a Japanese astronaut.

SpaceX公司的龍飛船2號將于5月載著遠征64號和遠征65號前往空間站,這是美國宇航局商業載人計劃的一部分,其中包括兩名美國宇航員和一名日本宇航員。

It will be the first time a craft other than the Russian Built Soyuz has been used to transfer people to the station since the Space Shuttle Atlantis made its final trip in November 2009.

這將是自2009年11月阿特蘭蒂斯號航天飛船最后一次飛行以來,除俄羅斯建造的聯盟號外,首次使用其他飛船向空間站運送人員。



(Boeing, who recently had a problem with its first uncrewed Starliner test flights, is also expected to operate the commercial space taxi service to the ISS from 2020 )

(波音公司最近在其首次無人駕駛的星際飛機測試飛行中出現了問題,預計從2020年起,該公司還將向國際空間站提供商業太空運送服務。)

Then in December 2020 the Boeing Starliner CST-100 will take expedition 66 and 67 crew to the station – including two Americans, a European and a Russian.

到2020年12月,這架波音星際飛機CST-100將搭載遠征66號和遠征67號的人員前往空間站,其中包括兩名美國人、一名歐洲人和一名俄羅斯人。

That mission will be only the fourth US Spaceflight with a female commander.

這將是美國第四次有女性指揮官的太空飛行。

Boeing''s Starliner ran into issues during its uncrewed test flight in December when a timing glitch meant it couldn''t dock with the ISS.

去年12月,波音公司的星際飛機在進行無人駕駛試飛時出現了問題,當時由于定時干擾的問題,它無法與國際空間站對接。



Japan’s Hayabusa2 asteroid sample-return mission

日本隼鳥二號小行星采樣返回任務

We will also get some samples of an asteroid returned to Earth as Japan’s Hayabusa-2 is expected to drop its samples of the Ryugu asteroid in the Australian desert.

我們還將在地球得到一些小行星的樣本,因為日本的隼鳥2號將在澳大利亞的沙漠中投下小行星龍宮的樣本。



(Scientists hope will provide clues into what the Solar System was like at its birth some 4.6billion years ago)

(科學家希望能提供太陽系在46億年前誕生時是什么樣子的線索)

Hayabusa-2 was launched in 2014 by the Japanese Space Agency JAXA with the aim of bringing samples from under the soil of an asteroid back to Earth.

隼鳥2號于2014年由日本宇宙航空研究開發機構發射升空,旨在將一顆小行星土壤下的樣本帶回地球。

The probe was sent 186 million miles from Earth to the asteroid Ryugu, whose name means ''Dragon Palace'' in Japanese.

探測器被從地球發射到1.86億英里外的小行星“龍宮”。

The return of the samples should happen in December, so any delay could see it slip to 2021, according to the Japanese space agency JAXA.

日本宇宙航空研究開發機構稱,樣本將在12月返回,因此任何延遲都可能推遲到2021年。

China''s Chang’e 5 sample return mission

中國的嫦娥五號樣本返回任務

China is also launching the Chang’e 5 sample return mission to the Moon where it will collect sample and bring them back to Earth for study.

中國還將發射嫦娥五號樣本返回月球,在那里它將收集樣本并帶回地球進行研究。

It will launch on the Long March 5 heavy-lift rocket from the Wenchang Satellite Launch Centre on Hainan island late in 2020.

它將于2020年晚些時候在海南島文昌衛星發射中心用長征五號重型運載火箭發射。

The aim of China''s space agency is to bring back about 4lb of lunar samples from a site near a volcanic formation on the western edge of the near side of the moon.

中國航天局的目標是從月球西側的一個火山附近帶回約4磅的月球樣本。



The billionaire entrepreneur will fly to space on board the VSS Unity as the company begins taking fee-paying passengers out of the atmosphere for the first time.

這位億萬富翁企業家將乘坐維珍太空船聯合體號飛船飛往太空,這是該公司首次將付費乘客帶離大氣層。

Launches will be happening all over the world - from Russia and the USA to China and India - it''s going to be a busy year for space ports.

發射將在世界各地進行——從俄羅斯和美國到中國和印度——今年將是航天港口繁忙的一年。