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Vik Rampersad, Student of history especially military history
The reasons why France collapsed are myriad but basically they boil down to a few main ones

二戰中導致法國軍隊崩潰的原因有很多,但總體上可以歸結于以下幾個主要原因:

Very poor communication between the front line and the rear command such that by the time orders reached the front the units were either already overrun or simply not where they were supposed to be. The military leadership was inept (at best) and the political and military leaders detested each other

前線軍隊與后方指揮所之間訊息不通,結果,要么后方指揮所的命令未能及時送達,要么被傳送到了錯誤的地點。法國軍隊領導人無能(這還是往好了說),而且法國的政治和軍事領導人彼此之間充滿了憎恨。

Outdated tactics. The French on paper were the strongest force in Europe possessing the best tanks, excellent artillery, good defenses , slightly superior aircraft and more troops. Unfortunately the French never concentrated their armor to meet the Germans and their fighter forces went AWOL allowing the Germans local air superiority which proved decisive. In addition, the French (and British) assumed that the Germans would fight a conventional war which meant a slow advance with halts to reorganise and bring up artillery and supplies in order to demolish strongpoints. Instead the Germans used air power as mobile artillery to blast their way through the French lines and bypassed strongpoints to be mopped up later. By not having to transport their artillery across rivers and obstacles they were able to move at astonishing rates which exploited the slow French lines of communication

戰術過時:從紙面數據上來看,當時的法國的確是歐洲最強大的力量,擁有當時最好的坦克、火炮、良好的防御措施、更加先進的戰機和更大規模的軍隊。然而不幸的是,法國軍隊一直都未能將自己的裝甲部隊集中起來對抗納粹德軍,而法國空軍擅離職守,這使得納粹德軍獲得了制空權,而這一點是決定性的因素。此外,法國(和英國)情報機構都預測,納粹德軍將會發動一場常規戰,即:緩慢推進→停頓→重組軍隊→運送火炮和補給來摧毀戰略要點。然而,納粹德軍卻將空中力量當做了移動火炮,將法軍防線炸開了口子,并繞過了那些軍事要點,隨后又將其清除掉。由于納粹德軍無需將火炮運送過河流和各種障礙物,他們能夠以極其驚人的速度推進,面對法軍戰線中的龜速通訊,納粹德軍占盡了優勢。



In contrast, the Russians were viewed as hopelessly backward, uncivilised and ill equipped. The great purges of Stalin in 37–39 had decimated the Red army commanders and Russia had been fought to a standstill by the tiny ill equipped Finns in the Winter war. There was not a single military strategist who believed that Russia could withstand the army that had destroyed the best that Europe could put in the field - and they were correct. The Germans initially advanced into Russia at an even faster rate than in France capturing hordes of prisoners and territory until the onset of Autumn rain and the coldest Winter in over a century halted them

相比之下,當時世人都認為蘇聯人非常落后、不文明而且設備落后。1937年至1939年間,大量紅軍指揮官都命喪斯大林的大清洗運動,不僅如此,在冬季戰爭中,裝備簡陋的芬蘭人甚至讓俄軍止步不前。當時,沒有一位軍事戰略家相信蘇聯能夠抵擋得住摧毀了歐洲最強軍隊的納粹德軍——實際上,這些戰略家的預測是正確的。納粹德軍在蘇聯的推進速度甚至比法國更高,俘虜了大量的囚犯,并占領了大面積的領土,直到秋雨和最冷的冬天阻止了納粹德軍的步伐。

What saved Russia was the German delay in launching Barbarossa as well as the decision to strike for the oilfields rather than Moscow as a priority target. Had Moscow fallen Stalin would in all likelyhood have been ousted and Russia forced to retreat beyond the Ural mountains thus allowing the Germans to consolidate their gains and build up a supply chain. Additionally Russian roads were archaic and unpaved and turned into metre deep quagmires in the Autumn rains preventing any effective movement of troops and supplies. The lack of mechanisation of the German army was its Achilles heel in this regard with the bulk of its transport being horse drawn and captured British and French lorries or air supply on VERY primitive airfields where the attrition rate from accidents was horrendous.

然而,納粹德軍推遲發動“巴巴羅薩”行動,放棄優先進攻莫斯科,反而選擇先進攻蘇聯的油田,這才是讓蘇聯留下喘息機會的原因。如果當時莫斯科被納粹德軍攻陷,那么,斯大林很可能會被趕下臺,紅軍不得不撤退到烏拉爾山脈以外的區域,而納粹德軍則可以鞏固自己的成果,并成功建立起供應鏈。不僅如此,蘇聯的道路很糟糕,根本沒有鋪設柏油馬路,一旦秋雨來臨,就會變成一米深的沼澤,這也阻礙了納粹德軍的行軍和補給效率。缺乏機動性成為了納粹德軍的致命弱點,于是,納粹德軍不得不利用馬匹、從英軍和法軍繳獲的貨車來完成龐大的運輸任務,或者通過原始機場獲得空中補給,而在這期間,各種事故所造成的損耗率是極高的。

The Russian railroads were of a different gauge to those in Europe which meant that, unlike in France, the German railroads could not use Russian lines to supply the troops rapidly and in bulk. The Russian scorched earth policy also prevented the Germans from supplying on the march and compelled them to bring in supplies from the rear… a very slow exercise that handicapped any advance. Russia thus devolved from Blitzkreig at the onset of Barbarossa to a more traditional WWI conflict with supply dumps having to be established and troops and materiel concentrated before an attack could be mounted. This loss of rapid mobility handicapped the Germans and allowed the Russians to construct some truly astounding defense lines

蘇聯鐵路軌距與歐洲鐵路不同,這就意味著,德國無法使用蘇聯的鐵路來快速大批運輸軍隊,這和法國的情況完全不同。不僅如此,蘇聯的焦土政策也阻礙了納粹德軍的補給和行軍速度,迫使其從后方運輸補給物,而這一行為極大阻礙了納粹德軍的推進效率。因此,深陷蘇聯戰場的納粹德軍不得不將“巴巴羅薩”行動初期采取的閃電戰轉變為傳統“一戰”模式的戰爭,必須要首先建立補給站、集中軍隊和物資才能夠發動進攻。機動能力的喪失阻礙了納粹德國的前進步伐,卻讓蘇聯人有機會建造起令人驚人的防線。

Another factor was that the Russians would often fight to the death rather than surrender, especially as the examples of those who had surrendered were made. Whole families of captured Russian troops were executed and any troops trying to surrender were shot by the dreaded NKVD. It was better to die fighting the Germans than die at the hands of the NKVD. The German treatment of Russian prisoners was truly appalling and the rumours of this spread throughout the Red Army thus bolstering their resolve to fight to the death.



Joe Chatterton
The French Surrendered because their situation was hopeless. The German Tanks had overrun The Low Countries and Northern France. While Italy and Spain were still technically nutreal they were both sympathetic to Hitler and surrounded France. The French’s only real ally at the time was the British. Who despite what most say was in many ways a liability to the French. They were poorly organized and were know to retreat at the slightest pressure without informing their French Allies leaving the French flanks vandable. The British did have a powerful Navy but battle ships do not help on land. At Dunkirk the British Completely abandoned the French. During the Start of WWII the French Military was suppior to the British in almost every way. The only thing that saved Britain From the surrendering with the French is there geography position. And the weakness of the German Navy. Turning to the Eastern Front and The USSR. The USSR would have been defeated if Hitler had acted more rationally. Moscow was in site and if he had advanced on it rather than attacking Stalingrad the Soviet unx would have been forced to surrender. During the early stages of the war the Soviet army performed very poorly. Germans occupied Soviet lands far larger than the whole of France. To directly answer the question the reason that Britain and the USSR were able to hold out while the French surrendered had quite little to do with military strength but everything to do with geography.

法國選擇投降,是因為它所面對的是一個令人絕望的局面。當時,納粹德國的坦克已經占領了低地國家(荷蘭、比利時和盧森堡)以及法國北部,而意大利和西班牙卻保持了中立態度,它們對希特勒和被包圍的法國都充滿了同情。當時,法國的唯一盟友就只有英國一家了。不管他人怎么說,當時的英國卻是壓在法國身上的負擔,英軍組織性很差,稍微遇到些壓力就急著撤退,甚至連自己的法國盟友都沒有通知一下便撤走了,結果讓法國的側翼暴露遭受攻擊。英國的確擁有一支強大的海軍,但是這對于陸地戰爭并沒有太大幫助。在敦刻爾克,英國徹底拋棄了自己的法國盟友。在二戰初始,法國幾乎在所有方面的表現都要優于英國。讓英國避免向法國一樣投降的原因只有一個,那就是它的地理位置。受限于海軍的實力,納粹德國將戰場轉向了東部前線和蘇聯。如果希特勒表現得更加理性一些,那么蘇聯一定會輸掉戰爭。莫斯科就坐落在那個地方,如果希特勒沒有選擇進攻斯大林格勒,而是選擇繼續向前推進,那樣蘇聯將會被迫投降。在戰爭初期,蘇聯紅軍的戰績十分糟糕。德國人所占領的蘇聯土地要比法國還要大很多。直截了當地說,英國和蘇聯能夠抵抗納粹德國多年,而法國卻很快投降的原因和軍事實力關系并不大,但是和地理位置有很重要的關系。