原創翻譯:龍騰網 http://www.ktxyyo.live 翻譯:squart 轉載請注明出處



The intense military rivalry between the United States and the USSR created the impetus for rapid technological advances. Despite never being technically at war, the Cold War constantly pressured each side to create newer, more advanced weaponry at a scale approaching wartime progress.

美國和蘇聯之間激烈的軍事競爭,為快速的技術進步創造了動力。盡管嚴格來講,兩國從未處于戰爭狀態過,但冷戰不斷給雙方造成壓力,要求它們以接近戰爭的規模制造更新、更先進的武器。

The most lethal weapons designed and fielded by both countries were thankfully never used in combat. On the other hand, some of the lowest-tech weapons were widely used. This article will discuss both the lethal weapons used by both sides, both in theory and reality.

值得慶幸的是,兩國設計和部署的破壞性極大的武器,從未用于戰爭中過。而一些技術含量最低的武器,則被廣泛使用。本文將從理論和現實兩個方面探討雙方使用的致命武器。

The AK-47
In real terms, the assault rifles of both countries were probably the most the most lethal weapons fielded by both sides. Given away to client states in the millions, the Soviet unx’s AK-47 and the American M-16 killed more people than the nuclear weapons owned by either side.

AK-47
實際上,兩國的突擊步槍可能是雙方部署的最致命的武器。蘇聯的AK-47和美國的M-16型步槍,供應給客戶的數量都是數以百萬級,造成的死亡人數比雙方擁有的核武器(造成的)還多。

The AK-47, according to legend, was developed by tanker turned small arms developer Mikhail Kalashnikov as he recovered from his World War II injuries. The so-called “assault rifle” was built to fire the less powerful 7.62-by-39-millimeter from a compact, fully automatic design.

AK-47,據說是由坦克手轉型的輕武器設計師-----卡拉什尼科夫,在二戰傷勢康復后研制的,這種所謂的“突擊步槍”,是為了發射威力較小的7.62×39mm的小型威力槍彈而進行的緊湊全自動設計。

On Kalashnikov’s death in 2013, Russian state media announced that up to 100 million Kalashnikovs had been built since the gun’s introduction in 1947, seeing service in South America, Asia, Africa, and Europe.

2013年卡拉什尼科夫去世后,俄羅斯官方媒體宣布,自1947年引進以來,已經建造了多達1億支卡拉什尼科夫系列槍支,在南美洲、亞洲、非洲和歐洲,這種槍支都有服役。

T-55 Tank
The most exported tank of the Cold War, the Soviet T-55 is also one of the most recognizable. Introduced shortly after the end of World War II, the T-55 replaced the venerable T-34 tank as the mainstay of the Soviet armor corps.

T-55坦克
作為冷戰時期出口量最大的坦克之一,蘇聯的T-55也是最為知名的坦克之一。二戰結束后不久,T55取代了功勛坦克T34,成為蘇聯裝甲部隊的中流砥柱。

The T-55 has served in numerous high-intensity conflicts, particularly the Arab-Israeli wars from 1967 to 1982. It was also used by the North Vietnamese Army against South Vietnamese forces and carried the victorious communist flag into Saigon in 1975.

T-55在很多高強度戰爭中現身,特別是1967年至1982年的阿以戰爭。它還被北越軍隊用來對抗南越軍隊,并于1975年將勝利的GC主義旗幟帶入西貢。

The T-55 still thrives today, thanks to its virtues as a reliable tank with decent firepower. It thrives in low antiarmor threat environments where other tanks are not expected and provides infantry fire support.

由于T-55坦克性能可靠,火力相當強大,即使在今天,它仍然非常流行。在反裝甲威脅不大的地方,T55非常流行,在那些地區,其他坦克只是奢求,而T55可以提供步兵火力支援。

F-4 Phantom II
The Joint Strike Fighter of its time, the F-4 Phantom II was a single airplane designed to serve both the U.S. Air Force and the U.S. Navy. A large, two-seat, twin engine airplane, the F-4 was designed for night and bad weather operations. It was also designed with a prodigious number of hard points for carrying weapons and fuel, giving it both firepower and range. The aircraft could carry a total of sixteen thousand pounds of fuel, bombs and missiles.

F-4II鬼怪戰斗機
作為當時的聯合攻擊戰斗機,F-4戰斗機,是一架為美國空軍和海軍服務的飛機,它是一種大型雙座雙引擎飛機,專為夜間和惡劣天氣作業而設計。F-4設計有很多的掛載點,用來攜帶武器和燃料,使其火力足夠、射程又遠,這架飛機總共可以攜帶一萬六千磅的燃料、炸彈和導彈。

Designed and manufactured by McDonnell Douglas, the F-4 was used extensively by both services in the Vietnam War as an air superiority fighter, ground attack jet, and tactical bomber. It was also used by Israel and Iran in combat in the Middle East.

F4戰斗機由麥克唐納·道格拉斯公司設計和制造,在越南戰爭中,被美國海軍和空軍廣泛用作空優戰斗機、地面攻擊機和戰術轟炸機,它也被以色列和伊朗用于中東的戰爭。
【譯注:1979前,伊朗是美國在中東地區的主要盟友,裝備有F4戰斗機,至今仍然是伊朗空軍的主力戰斗機?!?br />
The F-4 was purchased by America’s most vital allies, including the United Kingdom, West Germany, Israel, Australia, Turkey, Greece, Spain, Egypt and South Korea—and still serves with the Japan Air Self Defense Force. The F-4’s total kill count over its fifty-year career stands at approximately 280 enemy aircraft.

美國最重要的盟國,包括英國、西德、以色列、澳大利亞、土耳其、希臘、西班牙、埃及和韓國,購買了F4戰斗機,目前日本航空自衛隊仍然有F4戰斗機在服役。在F4五十年的職業生涯中,F4的總戰績約為280架敵機。

SS-18 “Satan”
The SS-18 missile was the heaviest intercontinental ballistic missile fielded by either side during the Cold War. A two-stage, liquid-fueled missile, the SS-18 had a range of 9,400 miles, making it capable of striking any location in the United States.

SS-18撒旦彈道導彈
SS-18導彈是冷戰期間,美蘇雙方部署的最大的洲際彈道導彈。SS-18是一種兩級液體燃料導彈,射程9400英里,能夠攻擊美國的任何地方。

The SS-18 carried a single large warhead with an explosive yield of eighteen to twenty-five megatons, or eighteen to twenty-five million tons of TNT. This was by far largest and most powerful thermonuclear warhead fielded by either size; the fireball alone would have almost totally consumed Washington DC and killed 2.1 million people outright.
By way of comparison, the bomb dropped on Hiroshima that killed approximately 135,000 people was about eighteen thousand tons of TNT—a peashooter by comparison.

SS-18攜帶一枚大型彈頭,爆炸當量為18至25兆噸,或18至2500萬噸TNT,這是迄今為止規模最大、威力最大的熱核彈頭,單是(爆炸時的)火球就可以完全摧毀華盛頓特區,直接造成210萬人死亡。
作為對比,降落在廣島的原子彈,殺死了大約135000人,大約為1.8萬噸TNT當量。

USS George Washington
The George Washington-class fleet ballistic missile submarines were the first ballistic missile submarines and for a time the most dangerous vehicles of any kind on earth. Each of the five submarines carried sixteen Polaris nuclear missiles, each with with a range of 1,500 miles and a yield of six hundred kilotons.

喬治·華盛頓級戰略核潛艇
喬治·華盛頓級彈道導彈核潛艇,是第一種彈道導彈潛艇,一度是地球上最危險的艦艇。五艘(喬治·華盛頓級)潛艇各攜帶16枚北極星核導彈,射程1500英里,當量60萬噸TNT。

The George Washington class was also nuclear-powered, giving them unlimited range. Indeed, the submarines were capable of staying underwater, creeping close to the Soviet unx, and then unleashing a combined 9.6 megatons of atomic firepower. This provided a second-strike capability nearly invulnerable once at sea, a powerful deterrent to surprise nuclear attack.

喬治華盛頓級潛艇也是核動力潛艇,給了他們無限的航程。實際上,這些潛艇能夠呆在水下,悄悄靠近蘇聯,然后發射出總計960萬噸的核爆炸能量。一旦(喬治華盛頓級潛艇)出海,來個突然核襲擊,幾乎是沒法防御的,這給美國提供了第二次核打擊能力。